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How to Calculate Percentage, Average, CGPA and SGPA

How to calculate Percentage Average CGPA and SGPA

Calculating Percentage, Average, SGPA and CGPA are the most significant components to assess the performance of an individual in an assessment. SGPA and CGPA are used globally for ranking students based on their performances.

India still uses a percentage system to calculate the performances of the students. Although certain institutes have opted for the SGPA and CGPA systems, the number of such institutes is significantly low. There are so many methods to calculate the SGPA and CGPA percentage of the student.

In this blog we will find the basic definitions of Percentage, Average, SGPA, CGPA. Refer to them and use them during your marks calculations as per your requirement.

Percentage

Percentage is a way to express a number as a fraction of 100. It is commonly used to represent scores, grades, or any value in terms of a percentage. The formula to calculate percentage is:

Percentage = (Value / Total Value) * 100

For example: you scored 75 marks out of 100 in a test:

Percentage = (75 / 100) * 100 = 75%

Hence the percentage is 75%.

Average

Average is the sum of all values in a dataset divided by the total number of values in the dataset. It is also known as the arithmetic mean.

The formula to calculate the average is:

Average = (Sum of all values) / (Number of values)

For example: you have the following dataset: 5, 8, 12, 15, 20.

Average = (5 + 8 + 12 + 15 + 20) / 5 = 60 / 5 = 12.

Hence the average is 12.

What is CGPA?

The full form of CGPA is Cumulative Grade Point Average. CGPA is a globally used method to measure the comprehensive academic record of a student. It usually consists of grades like A, B, C, D or F. The grade points are the average of the marks obtained for all the semesters.

The marks are given after the academic term. It is sometimes confused with GPA, which is the Grade Point Average that specifies the assessment of only one term.

More About CGPA:

Calculation: CGPA is calculated by taking the weighted average of all the grade points earned by a student in all the courses they have completed up to a certain point in their academic. The grade points are multiplied by the credit hours or points of each course to obtain grade points. Then, the total weighted grade points are divided by the total credit hours completed to get the CGPA.


Grade Points: Grade points are usually represented on a scale of 4.0 or 10.0, depending on the institution’s grading system. Commonly, a letter grade is assigned to each course.
(e.g., A, B, C, D, F) and is associated with a specific grade point (e.g., A=4.0, B=3.0, C=2.0, D=1.0, F=0.0).


Credit Hours: Each course in an academic program is assigned a certain number of credit hours, which represents the amount of time and effort required for the course. Typically, more credit hours are assigned to courses with more complex content.


Overall Progress: CGPA provides a clear indication of a student’s academic progress and performance throughout their entire academic program, which is particularly important for long-duration courses like undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.


Thresholds and Honors: Some institutions may have specific CGPA thresholds for academic honors or achieving certain degrees with distinction. For example, graduating “with honors” might require a minimum CGPA.


Comparison and Competitiveness: CGPA helps in comparing students’ academic performance, which can be crucial in competitive environments for scholarships, internships, or other opportunities.

How To Calculate CGPA?

Example to calculate the CGPA:

SubjectsGrade PointsCredit Hours
Subject A4.63
Subject B3.74
Subject C3.32
Subject D3.53

Step 1 : Calculate the weighted grade points for each course by multiplying the Grade Point with the Credit Hours for that course.

Grade Point for Subject A = 4.0 * 3 = 12.0

Grade Point for Subject B = 3.7 * 4 = 14.8

Grade Point for Subject C = 3.3 * 2 = 6.6

Grade Point for Subject D = 3.5 * 3 = 10.5

Step 2 : Add up all the grade points to get the Total Weighted Grade Points.

Total Weighted Grade Points = 12.0 + 14.8 + 6.6 + 10.5 = 43.9

Step 3 : Add up all the Credit Hours of the completed courses.

Total Credit Hours = 3 + 4 + 2 + 3 = 12

Step 4 : Calculate the CGPA by dividing the Total Weighted Grade Points by the Total Credit Hours.

CGPA = Total Weighted Grade Points / Total Credit Hours CGPA = 43.9 / 12 CGPA ≈ 3.66.

So, the CGPA of the student in this example is approximately 3.66 on a scale of 4.0. This CGPA represents the student’s overall academic performance in the four completed courses.

What is SGPA?

SGPA expands to mean Sessional Grade Point Average or Semester Grade Point Average. This helps to calculate a student’s score for the entire term. It calculates the average of all the grade points of student in the given semester has secured.

It is the cumulative grade given at the end of each semester of the student. This helps to understand your progress and motivates you to work on places that might be your weakest link. Every country has a different way of calculating SGPA. It is essential to keep a eye on your SGPA to leave room for improvement.

More About SGPA:

Calculation: SGPA is calculated by taking the weighted average of the grade points earned by a student in all the courses they have completed during a specific semester. Similar to CGPA, the grade points are multiplied by the credit hours of each course to obtain weighted grade points. Then, the total weighted grade points are divided by the total credit hours completed in that particular semester to get the SGPA.


Assessment Period: SGPA is typically calculated at the end of each semester or academic term, once the final grades for that semester are available.


Academic Progress: SGPA reflects a student’s academic progress and performance for that specific semester. It is useful for monitoring how well a student performed in the courses taken during that time frame.


Resets Each Semester: SGPA is reset at the beginning of each semester. It does not carry over grades from previous semesters. This allows for a fresh evaluation of a student’s performance in the new set of courses.


Cumulative Calculation: While SGPA is semester-specific, multiple SGPA scores can be used to calculate the CGPA, which represents the overall academic performance.


Academic Intervention: SGPA can help identify areas where a student may need additional support or intervention. If a student’s SGPA is consistently low across multiple semesters, it could indicate that they may need academic assistance.

How To Calculate SGPA?

  1. Make a list of all your credit and grade points in each subject. 
  2. Multiply the credit points by your grade in each subject. You can even take a median of grades as grades cover a range. 
  3. Add your results together. 
  4. Divide the total score by the sum of the earned credit points.

 Example to calculate your SGPA. 

Credit Score Grades 
Subject A – 5Subject A – 9
Subject B – 7Subject B – 8
Subject C – 3Subject C – 7.8

Step 1 : calculate Subject Credit Score with Grades :

Subject A: 5X9= 45 

Subject B: 7X8= 56 

Subject C: 3X7.8= 23.4. 

Step 2 : Add all the subject results together. 

Subject A+ Subject B+ Subject C= 

45+56+23.4= 124.4. 

Step 3 : SGPA formula= points obtained in the semester/ Credits secured in the semester. 

Points secured in the semester: 124.4. 

Credits secured in the semester: 5+7+3 = 15 

SGPA= 124.4/15 

= 8.29 

Hence the SGPA is 8.29. 

Outlining the difference between CGPA and SGPA

ParametersCGPASGPA
TimeframeRepresents overall academic performance over multiple semesters or the entire academic program.Represents academic performance for a specific semester or academic term.
Courses IncludedIncludes grades from all courses completed up to the current point.Includes grades only for the courses taken in the current semester.
CalculationCGPA is calculated by averaging grade points of all courses taken throughout the program, considering credit hours of each course.SGPA is calculated by averaging grade points of courses taken in the current semester only, considering credit hours of each course.
UpdatesCGPA is updated each time a new course is completed, and new grades are available.SGPA is updated at the end of each semester or academic term when new grades for that term are available.
Overall Academic ProgressReflects the overall progress and academic performance throughout the program.Provides a snapshot of academic performance for a specific semester.
SignificanceCGPA is crucial for evaluating a student’s performance over the entire academic duration, such as for job applications or higher studies.SGPA is essential for monitoring academic progress and eligibility for scholarships or academic honors in a particular semester.
WeightageEqual weightage is given to all courses taken so far, regardless of when they were completed.Equal weightage is given to courses taken in the current semester; previous semesters are not factored into SGPA calculations.
ResetCGPA continues from one academic term to the next, and it does not reset unless a student starts a new academic program.SGPA resets at the beginning of each semester since it only considers courses taken in that specific semester.

How To Convert CGPA Into Percentage?

Calculation of CGPA is easily acceptable throughout the world. The students want to assess their performances based on one particular semester and thereby calculate the SGPA later.

Suppose you have an 8.7 CGPA. You must multiply it by 9.5 to convert it into a percentage. 

Hence your value will be 

8.7X9.5= 82.65. 

Your total percentage will be 82.65. 

The above method shows you the easiest way how to calculate percentage from CGPA. You can even try to calculate your CGPA with the help of your SGPA as well. For that, you need to know your SGPA. 

How To Calculate CGPA Through SGPA?

SGPA is the cumulative sum of the average you have obtained from the entire year. You first need to find the sum of all your SGPAs throughout your academic year, and then you have to divide it by the total number of semesters you have had. 

Therefore, 

CGPA= (Sum of SGPA of all semesters in a year/ number of semesters). 

Taking an example, if your SGPA is 4,6 and 2 in 3 semesters, then your CGPA will be 

(4+6+2)/3 

= 12/3 

=4. 

Hence, your CGPA is 4. 

SGPA to CGPA Calculation According to VTU

Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU) uses the following formula to calculate SGPA for potential students.

SGPA = Σ(Ci×Gi)/ΣCi

Where Ci is the Credit assigned for a course
Gi is the Grade point for that course.

For students to evaluate their academic performance, set objectives, track progress, and identify strengths and weaknesses shortcomings. It assists the areas for growth, working on their weak points and achieving the desired results.

SGPA is also essential in determining the employment options, making it important indicator for students seeking success outside the classrooms.

Finally, SGPA is a crucial that provides students with helpful information about their academic achievements. Students can attain intellectual brilliance and prepare for successful jobs by exploiting its benefits and concentrating on holistic learning.

Remember that different institutions might use slightly different grading scales and methods to calculate CGPA and SGPA. Always refer to your institution’s specific guidelines for accurate calculations.

Here some Suggested Apps to Calculate CGPA and SGPA:

  1. My GPA Calculator (iOS),
  2. CGPA Calculator – CGPA & SGPA Tracker (Android),
  3. GPA Calculator.net (Web App).

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